Do exterior basketball courts, tennis courts, running tracks (rubber or granite) need to meet ADA requirements? If so, what are they?

These are all some kind of a sports court. As such there are no requirements for sports courts proper. There is a requirement that the sports courts be on an accessible route.

206.2.2 Within a Site. At least one accessible route shall connect accessible buildings, accessible facilities, accessible elements, and accessible spaces that are on the same site.
206.2.12 Court Sports. In court sports, at least one accessible route shall directly connect both sides of the court.